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Fieldwork in nigeria (west africa)

Randomized experiment associated to the april 2007 elections



Action Aid International Nigeria  Practical Sampling International


this happened...


This election is a do or die affair.

Feb. 10th 2007, President Obasanjo


Elections could further destabilise the violent, oil-rich Delta region.

Mar. 15th , 2007, The Economist, headline


Election breeds fear in Nigeria's Muslim north.

Apr. 12th , 2007, The Financial Times, headline


After rigged and violent local polls, the opposition threatens a boycott of the presidential race.

Apr. 18th , 2007, The Economist, headline


Violence and fraud tarnish Nigerian elections.

Apr. 22nd , 2007, The Financial Times, headline


Rigging, violence and intimidation were so pervasive and on such naked display that they made a mockery of the electoral process. […] Where voting did take place, many voters stayed away from the polls. They were frightened off by a pre-election period that saw more than 100 people killed in election-related clashes. By the time voting ended, the body count had surpassed 300.

May 15th , 2007, Human Rights Watch


while we were in the field!


We have designed and organized together with local partners a Randomized Experiment on Political Violence during the Elections of April 2007.

This experiment included:

This experiment was aimed at assessing the effects of the campaign, not only in terms of reports/perceptions related with violence, but also in terms of voting behavior (turnout, vote) by the panel of respondents. We also designed a module to characterize the effects of the campaign that worked through social networks.


This page is intended to provide an introduction to this project.





Sample map

Map with the Sampled Areas (places visited in the survey, including treatment) in Nigeria - click for details.






  • The Campaign went on from February 13th to February 27th, 2007, and consisted, at each of the 12 treatment locations, of standardized:

    • Distribution of campaign materials: t-shirts, hijabs, caps, stickers, posters & leaflets.

    • Roadshows (including tailored jingles)

    • Popular theatre

    • Town Meetings

Poster and leaflet  Sticker

Left: poster and leaflet; Right: sticker - click for details.


  • General Documents from ActionAid International Nigeria:

    • Methodology Meeting (16-17 January 2007, Abuja):

Imam Ashafa and others Some of the State Coordinators Some of the State Coordinators Organisers

  • Final Report - click here

  • Media Review on Political Violence - June 2006 to April 22, 2007 - click here

Regional Reports